Analysis of the current situation of domestic construction machinery accessories industry

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HC surface treatment network: China's construction machinery industry started late, but developed rapidly. Especially after the reform and opening up, the rapid economic growth, a large number of construction projects to promote the development of construction machinery products. At present, the construction machinery industry ranking is the fourth of the ten important industries with relatively complete product categories, considerable scale and certain technical level in China's machinery industry. China has also entered the seventh place in the world of construction machinery production power. It reflects the overall level of a country's machinery industry from one side. The developed countries in the world attach great importance to the development of construction machinery and regard it as a strategic industry. The annual sales of large foreign companies reach tens of billions of dollars or more. China's existing construction machinery products production enterprises have more than 1400. Among them, there are 12 enterprises with annual sales of more than 1 billion yuan and 73 enterprises with annual sales of more than 100 million yuan. The sales volume of the whole industry was nearly 56 billion yuan in 2001 and reached 66 billion yuan in 2002, ranking fifth only to the automobile, electrical and electrical appliances, petrochemical general and agricultural machinery industries. The whole industry already has a number of state-owned, private, joint ventures and wholly-owned enterprises that compete with multinational companies in some fields. However, compared with international famous large enterprise groups and multinational companies, China's construction machinery enterprises have a large gap in scale and technology. Although the operating income of XCMG, the largest in China, has reached 9 billion yuan in 2002, it is far from reaching the level of economies of scale in the same industry in the world.
The same is true for construction machinery basic parts companies. Although construction machinery parts have formed a national, regional and corporate three-level specialized production and sales and supporting network, after the reform and opening up, a large number of key basic parts manufacturing technologies have been introduced, such as diesel engines, slewing bearings, Drive axle, four-wheel area, cab, oil cylinder, hydraulic components, power box, instrument and instrument panel, etc. a number of products with a certain quality and technical level. Especially in recent years, the pace of joint venture cooperation has been accelerated, and a number of new parts and components products with reliable quality, advanced technology and perfect service have emerged in the industry. Relying on the reliability of product quality, relying on the improvement of technical level and relying on first-class service to win the competition has become the consensus of all operators in the industry. However, compared with the development of host products and market demand, the parts industry still has a very large gap compared with multinational companies in terms of production scale, technical level, market share, product grade, quality and reliability, price trend and economic benefits.
First of all, the organizational structure of parts production enterprises is loose, the concentration is low, and the product convergence is serious, which is mainly manifested in the four more and four less: more people, more debt, more ordinary products, more production maintenance enterprises; less sales revenue, less profit, less characteristic products, less product development enterprises. There is a lack of large enterprises that can support and drive the development and structural optimization and upgrading of the parts industry, especially large enterprises and enterprise groups with independent intellectual property rights, outstanding main business and strong core competitiveness. If there were no such top-ranking enterprises with strong core competitiveness, the industry would not be competitive and would only be scattered. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 300 basic parts enterprises specially designed for construction machinery in China, but the scale is not large. According to the statistics of 45 major enterprises, no more than 10 have sales of more than 100 million yuan. Most of the main engine factories still adhere to the backward production mode of large and complete and small and complete formed by historical reasons for their own development and control needs. The focus of attention is on the development of the main engine, which makes the development of parts slow and sluggish. Although the sales volume of parts companies this year has generally increased by more than 30% compared with last year, it still cannot meet the needs of the increase in mainframe production, let alone meet the huge maintenance spare parts market.
Secondly, the product research and development capabilities of parts manufacturers are weaker than those of OEMs, and the test methods are traditional and backward. There are few advanced and perfect process equipment capabilities as the basis for development. At present, they are still basically stuck in the digestion and absorption of imported technologies and the imitation and replication of similar products. On the one hand, the phenomenon of low-level repeated investment and repeated construction of large-scale goods products is serious. On the other hand, there are few high-end products with high technological added value, which cannot meet the needs of mainframe development, and the contradiction of product structural shortage still exists.
Third, industrialized countries have generally adopted CNC machine tools and machining centers to achieve flexible automation, and have developed in the direction of intelligence and integration. And our various parts of the enterprise process technology level is uneven, less advanced technology and equipment, most of the old plant equipment. Not only with large foreign companies can not be compared, and even with other industries in China's basic parts production enterprises also have a considerable gap. There is a shortage of investment in technological development and technological transformation in various enterprises, and products and technologies have not been thoroughly updated and transformed for a long time, lacking the stamina for development. Due to the small scale, it is difficult for banks to grant capital loans, and they are rarely supported by the national discount policy for technological transformation.
Fourth, most parts enterprises have low economic efficiency and high production and sales costs. From 1996 to 1999, the whole industry suffered losses for four consecutive years. For the current basic parts enterprises, the marginal contribution rate is generally not high. In 2001, the average profit rate of the whole industry was only 1.57 per cent. Under the condition that the reputation of the market economy has not been fully established, the main engine factory often takes up a large amount of sales payment as a prerequisite for accepting the entry of spare parts, and sometimes uses the higher-priced main engine products as payment for the goods, resulting in the realization of spare parts enterprises only after selling at a reduced price, which virtually increases the economic losses of spare parts enterprises. In order to compete for and maintain market share, these small enterprises often adopt the simplest marketing strategy of price war, resulting in the strange phenomenon of doing less and paying less, doing more and paying more in some enterprises, and production and operation are more difficult.
Fifth, most of the parts production enterprises are old state-owned enterprises, with less capital, heavier social responsibilities and burdens, and more of the surplus personnel, bad debts, historical burdens, social stability and other responsibilities that should not be borne by enterprises. As a result, business operators cannot concentrate all their energy on product development and market development, resulting in a series of unfavorable factors restricting development, such as high labor costs, slow improvement of labor productivity, and difficulties in reforming the property rights system and transforming operating mechanisms.
Sixth, the majority of parts production enterprise management there are some problems, management concepts and means backward, the vast majority of enterprises are still in the traditional experience management and man-to-man management stage, and the requirements of the modern enterprise system and the management level of large companies at home and abroad there is still a big gap. At the same time, it is also a historical reason. Most parts companies also have the phenomenon of large and complete and small and complete. Products and most of the parts that make up products are produced within an enterprise, and the production factors of the enterprise are completely dependent on specific products.
Seventh, due to the problems of parts enterprises in terms of quality and reliability, technical level, delivery time and pre-sales and after-sales service, some host enterprises, especially some leading enterprises of host products, are still investing a lot of money in the construction of basic parts and components, regardless of their scale and economic benefits, while now carrying out relocation and transformation to improve the technical level of host, still maintaining a large and comprehensive mode of production, maintain the pattern of self-development.
It can be seen that the reliability of some key basic components required for construction machinery is not high and the development lags behind, which restricts the rapid improvement of the level of mainframe products in China's construction machinery industry and weakens the ability to compete with foreign imports of new and second-hand construction machinery products and domestic joint ventures and wholly-owned mainframe enterprises, thus hindering the large and continuous export of construction machinery mainframe products.