Mold is the basic process equipment of the automotive industry. More than 90% of the parts in the automobile production need to be shaped by the mold. According to reports, the manufacture of a regular car requires about 1,500 sets of molds, of which about 1,000 sets of stamping molds. In the development of new models, 90% of the workload is carried out around the change of the body profile. About 60% of the development cost of new models is used for the development of body and stamping processes and equipment. About 40% of the total manufacturing cost of the vehicle is the cost of the body stamping and its assembly.
In the development of the automotive mold industry at home and abroad, the mold technology presents the following nine development trends.
1. The position of mold 3D design is consolidated
The three-dimensional design of the mold is an important part of the digital mold technology, and is the basis for the integration of mold design, manufacturing and inspection. Japan's Toyota, the United States and other companies have achieved the three-dimensional design of the mold, and achieved good application results. Some of the practices adopted by foreign countries in the three-dimensional design of molds are worth learning. In addition to facilitating integrated manufacturing, the three-dimensional design of the mold is convenient for interference inspection, and can perform motion interference analysis to solve a problem in the two-dimensional design.
2. The simulation (CAE) effect of the stamping forming process is more prominent
In recent years, with the rapid development of computer software and hardware, the simulation technology (CAE) of the stamping process has played an increasingly important role. In the United States, Japan, Germany and other developed countries, CAE technology has become a necessary part of the mold design and manufacturing process, widely used to predict forming defects, optimize the stamping process and mold structure, improve the reliability of mold design, and reduce the test time. Many domestic auto mold companies have also made significant progress in the application of CAE and achieved good results. The application of CAE technology can greatly save the cost of trial mold and shorten the development cycle of stamping die, which has become an important means to ensure the quality of the mold. CAE technology is gradually transforming mold design from empirical design to scientific design.
3. Digital mold technology has become the mainstream
The rapid development of digital mold technology in recent years is an effective way to solve many problems faced in the development of automotive molds. The so-called digital mold technology is the application of computer technology or computer aided technology (CAX) in the mold design and manufacturing process. Summarize the successful experience of domestic and foreign automotive mold enterprises in the application of computer-aided technology. Digital automotive mold technology mainly includes the following aspects: 1 Design for manufacturability (DFM), which considers and analyzes manufacturability during design to ensure the success of the process. 2 The auxiliary technology of mold surface design develops intelligent profile design technology. 3CAE assists in the analysis and simulation of the stamping process, predicting and resolving possible defects and forming problems. 4 Replace the traditional two-dimensional design with a three-dimensional mold structure design. 5 mold manufacturing process using CAPP, CAM and CAT technology. 6 Under the guidance of digital technology, solve the problems that arise during the trial mold process and in the stamping production.
4, rapid development of mold processing automation
Advanced processing technology and equipment is an important foundation for improving productivity and ensuring product quality. It is not uncommon in the advanced automobile mold enterprises to have CNC machines with double tables, automatic tool changers (ATC), automatic machining photoelectric control systems, and on-line workpiece measurement systems. CNC machining has evolved from simple profile processing to full-scale machining of profile and structural surfaces. From medium to low speed machining to high speed machining, machining automation technology has developed rapidly.
5. High-strength steel plate stamping technology is the future development direction
High-strength steels have an excellent use in automobiles due to their excellent characteristics in terms of yield ratio, strain hardening characteristics, strain distribution capability, and collision energy absorption. At present, high-strength steels used in automotive stampings mainly include paint-hardened steel (BH steel), duplex steel (DP steel), and phase change induced plastic steel (TRIP steel). The International Ultralight Body Project (ULSAB) expects 97% of the advanced concept models (ULSAB-AVC) launched in 2010 to be high-strength steels, and the proportion of advanced high-strength steel sheets in vehicle materials will exceed 60%, and duplex The proportion of steel will account for 74% of the steel plate for vehicles.
The soft steel series mainly based on IF steel, which is now widely used, will be replaced by high-strength steel plate series, and high-strength low-alloy steel will be replaced by dual-phase steel and ultra-high-strength steel. At present, the application of high-strength steel plates for domestic auto parts is mostly limited to structural parts and beam parts, and the tensile strength of the materials used is more than 500 MPa. Therefore, quickly mastering the high-strength steel plate stamping technology is an important issue to be solved urgently in China's automotive mold industry.
6. New mold products are launched in due course
With the development of high-efficiency and automation of automobile stamping production, progressive die will be more widely used in the production of automotive stamping parts. Progressive die is a high-tech mold product, which is technically difficult, requires high manufacturing precision, and has a long production cycle. Multi-station progressive die will be one of the key mold products developed in China, and complex stamping parts, especially some According to the traditional process, a small number of small and medium-sized complex stamping parts requiring multiple punching and ordering are more and more progressive forming.
7, mold materials and surface treatment technology will be reused
The quality and performance of the mold material is an important factor affecting mold quality, life and cost. In recent years, in addition to a variety of high toughness and high wear resistance cold work die steel, flame hardened cold work die steel, powder metallurgy cold work die steel, the use of cast iron materials on large and medium-sized stamping dies abroad is worthwhile. The development trend of concern. Ductile iron has good toughness and wear resistance, and its welding performance, workability and surface hardening performance are also good, and the cost is lower than that of alloy cast iron. Therefore, it is widely used in automobile stamping dies.
8. The scientific and information management is the development direction of mold enterprises
Another important aspect of the development of automotive mold technology is the scientific and information management. The scientific management has enabled mold companies to continuously develop in the direction of Just-in-Time Manufacturing and Lean Production. Enterprise management is more precise, production efficiency is greatly improved, and ineffective institutions, links and personnel are continuously streamlined. With the advancement of modern management technology, many advanced information management tools, including enterprise resource management system (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), project management (PM), etc. Widely used.
9, the fine manufacturing of the mold is an inevitable trend
The so-called refined manufacturing of the mold is in terms of the development process and manufacturing results of the mold, specifically the rationalization of the stamping process and the design of the mold structure, the high precision of the mold processing, the high reliability of the mold product and the strict management of the technology. Sex. The meticulous manufacture of molds is not a single technology, but a comprehensive reflection of design, processing and management techniques. In addition to technical excellence, the realization of fine mold manufacturing is guaranteed by strict management.